The complete list of Donald Trump’s pardons and commutations
As of December 24, President Trump has granted grace in the form of pardons or commutations to more than 90 people, from relatively obscure clerks or nonviolent drug abusers to famous (conservative commentators Dinesh D'Souza; Maricopa County's Sheriff Joe Arpaio)) and the infamous (four Blackwater security companies that murdered more than a dozen civilians in Iraq).
Other presidents have issued more pardons, and some of them have been controversial, including Bill Clinton's final second pardon for financier Marc Rich, a well-connected Democratic donor who was a refugee in Switzerland and faced numerous criminal charges in the US.
In the days just before Christmas, Trump granted 45 pardons, including one to Charles Kushner, the father of Trump's son-in-law and advisor Jared Kushner, and to Trump's close associates Paul Manafort and Roger Stone, who had been convicted of crimes related to the 2016 campaign which sparked speculation that the pardons were a reward for their refusal to provide investigators with evidence that could have implicated Trump. It is widely believed that Trump will issue further pardons before leaving office on Jan. 20, including up to family members who have not been charged with any crime - or themselves.
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Here is a list, in no particular order, of the people Trump has graced:
Flynn, a retired Lieutenant General in the Army, pleaded guilty to lying to the FBI about his contacts with the Russian Ambassador to the United States. He was fired from his job as Trump's national security advisor for lying to Vice President Mike Pence about these contacts.
President Trump's one-time campaign manager Paul Manafort arrives at the Manhattan Supreme Court on June 27, 2019. (Timothy A. Clary / AFP via Getty Images)
Campaign manager for Trump's 2016 presidential campaign, Manafort, was convicted in 2018 of financial fraud related to his business dealings in Russia and for attempts to hide his crimes from investigators.
Papadopoulos, a foreign affairs adviser, also pleaded guilty to lying to the FBI in the context of Special Adviser Robert Mueller's investigation into Trump campaign contacts with the Russian government. He served a 14-day prison sentence in 2018.
Alex van der Zwaan
Van der Zwaan, a Dutch lawyer who worked with Manafort, sat 30 days in jail after pleading guilty in 2018 to lying to Mueller's investigators.
Roger Stone, a former adviser to President Trump. (Win McNamee / Getty Images)
In 2019, Stone was convicted of crimes that included witness manipulation and lies by investigators during an investigation by special adviser Robert Mueller of Stone's alleged role in posting emails stolen from the Democratic National Committee.
The former California congressman pleaded guilty in 2019 to misusing campaign funds during family vacation and paying for an extramarital affair. Hunter was an early and passionate Trump supporter.
Former MP Chris Collins, R-N.Y., Was the first member of Congress to endorse Trump's 2016 presidential election. He was found guilty of insider trading and lying to the FBI. At the time of Trump's pardon, he was serving a 26-month prison term.
Another incarcerated former Congressman, former Rep. Steve Stockman, R-Texas was convicted in 2018 for an attempt to raise hundreds of thousands of dollars in donations for charity and voter education for his personal use.
The story goes on
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