'What are you?' How multiracial Americans respond and how it's changing
Photojournalist Daniella Zalcman grew up in a predominantly white suburb of Washington DC and couldn't go to school with another Vietnamese person - nor someone like her who had a mixed Vietnamese heritage. Instead, she got "ridiculous questions" as to whether she was a "war baby".
Fast forward to college when 34-year-old Zalcman entered her Vietnamese language course and saw the other students in the room: five women, all of them with a part-Vietnamese background. "It was such a fun relief to instantly find this group of people who understood all of my jokes, all of these different things that were part of my personality," she told NBC Asian America.
As a person of part Asian descent, she said, until then she hadn't really been able to share the experience of “what it means to control your own identity as an American, all of these different cultures that are part of who you are and important to you and important for you, but often contradict each other. "
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Daniella Zalcman. (Courtesy Daniella Zalcman)
The cultural awareness and prevalence of Partly Asian people in the United States increases with their numbers. About five years ago, Asians and multiracial people were the fastest growing populations in the country.
It's a phenomenal change since the time of Loving v Virginia, the 1967 Supreme Court ruling that struck down state laws banning interracial marriages.
When reviewing the 2018 US Census data, the Pew Research Center found that approximately 6.2 million adults in America reported having two or more races. Of those, 20 percent were white and Asian Americans, while two percent were black and Asian Americans.
From 1980 to 2015, the proportion of multiracial and multiethnic babies born in the United States tripled - although, according to Pew, it is still only 14 percent of the total number of births. While the majority of multiethnic babies had either a white and a Hispanic parent or two multiracial parents, Pew found that 14 percent had a white and an Asian parent, three percent had a Hispanic and an Asian parent, and one percent had a black parent and one Asian parents.
Part of the recent focus on people with mixed AAPI heritage was thanks to Vice President Kamala Harris, whose mother and father immigrated to the US from India and Jamaica, respectively, and who openly discussed how both parts of their identities formed as they were Person and civil servant.
Just as Asians have gained prominence in American society, Asians have also gained prominence in other areas of public life. The tennis phenomenon Naomi Osaka is of Japanese and black origins. Millions cling to every word from model and writer Chrissy Teigen, who is of Thai and European descent. The DC blockbuster "Aquaman" grossed more than $ 1 billion with a cast led by Jason Momoa, who is partly native Hawaiian and partly white. Musical success stories range from Bruno Mars (partly Filipino) to Ne-Yo (partly Chinese) to Karen O of the Yeah Yeah Yeahs (partly Korean). The list goes on and on.
It wasn't always like that - or at least it wasn't discussed so openly.
When the photographer Kip Fulbeck started the groundbreaking project “Part Asian, 100% Hapa” in 2006, which shows portraits of multiracial Asians, accompanied by their own answers to an all too familiar question: “What are you?” - He filled a gap, the he had felt in his own childhood as an adult = Chinese.
"I would have loved to have this book when I was seven years old," he said. “It wasn't there. So I did it. "
To his surprise, the photo sessions put together before Facebook mainstreaming drew crowds of people to attend. Many were people who wanted to give their own answer to the question of what they were, who wanted to be not just part of something, but part of something.
Remy Martin Circle of Centaurs Los Angeles Event by Jeffstaple; Recognition from Kip Fulbeck, Sonja Rasula and Jorge Valencia (Charley Gallay / Getty Images for Remy Martin file)
Mixed race people have described a rainbow of experiences. Some say mixed cultures made life richer and more inclusive; others speak of it to fight for acceptance of one side or the other of their roots, to feel the internal or external pressure to accept or reject part of them, or to get used to ticking the box for "other" on forms.
When you're actively spending time in a place with a larger Hapa population, "it's really mind-blowing in two ways," said Fulbeck, who remembers being targeted and assaulted while growing up in a white neighborhood. On one hand, "It's like," Oh my Gd, [I] have found my tribe, "but I've also seen people like," Oh, I'm no longer special. I'm no longer memorable ... ”Some people react in a strange cultural way they are supposed to deal with it. I've seen that before. "
Probably the easiest place in the US for a mixed AAPI person to master this range of emotions is Hawaii. It is not surprising that "hapa," a Hawaiian-language term for "half," has become a focal point for describing people of more than one race.
While linguist Keao NeSmith, an expert on Hawaiian and Polynesian languages, said the use of the word "hapa" in Hawaiian to describe multiracial people dates back to the 1830s, including the leap of the term to mainland America and America to illustrate its expansion to a wider area The group of (largely) multiracial East Asians is a little more complicated.
Paul Spickard, distinguished professor of history at the University of California at Santa Barbara and a scholar of race and ethnicity, recalls that "hapa" was "occasional" in Japanese-American communities on the west coast and in the late 1960s or early 1970s a little later on the continent was used by Chinese Americans and Filipinos.
"The arrival of the word on the west coast around 1970 fits in with the increasing national awareness of Hawaii, which was accompanied by several developments," said Spickard over the past few decades - due to the island's role in World War II, Hawaii became part of the United States in 1959, increased tourism from the mainland to Hawaii in the 1950s and 1960s; and the islands' growing presence in pop culture.
"Americans in general became aware of and considered Hawaii as part of the United States," Spickard said. “With air travel and the rising middle class status, more continental Asian Americans were traveling to Hawaii to visit relatives frequently. When the post-war generation of Asian Americans also began to include some multiracial people, the word that people learned on the islands - where in the 1960s it was applied not just to people who were mixed and Hawaiian people, but to everyone who it was mixed - began to be applied to these mixed people in continental Asian American communities. 'Hapa' was used quite widely in Asian American communities on the west coast in the early 1980s. "
Pew studies have found that Hawaii tops all other states by far in terms of the percentage of residents who identify as having two or more races. Almost 25 percent of the people in Hawaii reported being multiracial. Most of them, more than 20 percent, actually come from three backgrounds - a combination of white, Asian, and native Hawaiian / Pacific islanders.
Keao NeSmith. (Courtesy Dana Edmunds)
NeSmith, who is of Native Hawaiian and European descent, said in his experience that "hapa" is not a loaded phrase in Hawaii, where mixed backgrounds have become a recognized norm over many decades of island immigration and intermarriage.
"In general, I feel like the way people use 'hapa' in the US is different than here in Hawaii ... The way the locals understand they are mixed race people there is often the idea when you use the term that part of your mix is Hawaiian, [but] that's not always the case. It can be anything, any combination, any racial mix, "NeSmith said. In fact, he says, hapa as a word "is not race-specific at all. It's just a combination of things. It just means" part "of everything."
In a reversal of centuries of American practice in mainland America, NeSmith adds that it is not mixed in Hawaii, which seems strange with some ethnic groups - but is still practiced. Partly for this reason, he does not believe that the use of "hapa" has negative connotations.
That's not true for everyone: writer Akemi Johnson said she stopped using "hapa" to describe herself after digging into the backstory of the term for a 2016 play on National Public Radio. In it she dealt with the longing of mixed AAPIs - including herself - to have a name for the mosaic of their legacy. But she also spoke to people who had described the term in such a way that it at least once had the connotation of a bow or said that the term could only rightly be claimed by people with partially indigenous Hawaiian heritage.
“After writing this piece, I realized that I could no longer use 'hapa' to describe myself or other mixed race Asian Americans. I couldn't ignore anyone who told me it felt like identity theft, and I understand the bigger problems of colonialism and appropriation that the broad use of the term poses to some people, said Johnson, author of Night in the American Village: Women in the shadow of the US military bases in Okinawa. "
Akemi Johnson. (Courtesy Akemi Johnson)
Today she said, “I use a variety of words to describe myself - Japanese-American, multiracial, biracial, half-white, and half-Japanese - depending on the context and mood. I increasingly find it less important to have a term for my racial identity. I realize that the race and the language in which it is described are fluent and that my identity is established elsewhere. "
While the number of mixed breeds, including AAPIs, is increasing, the total number is still relatively small. It remains to be seen what acceptance children of this next generation will find in the years to come. Anti-Asian hate crimes have intensified amid the pandemic. At a time of racist tension, some supporters of the white supremacist ideology now want the creation of a white ethnostat specifically designed to prevent the prevention of racial mixes, which supposedly makes the Hapa people even more of an enemy than AAPI.
It will take time, but ultimately, "Love and human connection and mixed families and getting to know people from other cultures in long, intimate ways is what makes us better people and better informed people and more empathetic people," said Zalcman. the photojournalist.
"I know it's a lot more work when you get to know someone who's from a culture that's not yours, but it's good for us too, so I think that's something incredible more and more often - and that we need. "
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